`ndarray`

objects to solve the math exercises. Part 3 provides additional information about NumPy and how it relates to array usage in Spark's MLlib. Part 4 provides an overview of lambda expressions, and you'll wrap up by downloading the dataset for Lab 4.¶`# TODO: Replace <FILL IN> with appropriate code`

.¶In [80]:

```
labVersion = 'cs190_week1_v_1_2'
```

In [81]:

```
# TODO: Replace <FILL IN> with appropriate code
# Manually calculate your answer and represent the vector as a list of integers values.
# For example, [2, 4, 8].
x = [3,-6,0]
y = [4,8,16]
```

In [82]:

```
# TEST Scalar multiplication: vectors (1a)
# Import test library
from test_helper import Test
Test.assertEqualsHashed(x, 'e460f5b87531a2b60e0f55c31b2e49914f779981',
'incorrect value for vector x')
Test.assertEqualsHashed(y, 'e2d37ff11427dbac7f833a5a7039c0de5a740b1e',
'incorrect value for vector y')
```

In [83]:

```
# TODO: Replace <FILL IN> with appropriate code
# Manually calculate your answer and represent the vector as a list of integers values.
z = [4,10,18]
```

In [84]:

```
# TEST Element-wise multiplication: vectors (1b)
Test.assertEqualsHashed(z, '4b5fe28ee2d274d7e0378bf993e28400f66205c2',
'incorrect value for vector z')
```

In [85]:

```
# TODO: Replace <FILL IN> with appropriate code
# Manually calculate your answer and set the variables to their appropriate integer values.
c1 = -11
c2 =26
```

In [86]:

```
# TEST Dot product (1c)
Test.assertEqualsHashed(c1, '8d7a9046b6a6e21d66409ad0849d6ab8aa51007c', 'incorrect value for c1')
Test.assertEqualsHashed(c2, '887309d048beef83ad3eabf2a79a64a389ab1c9f', 'incorrect value for c2')
```

In [87]:

```
# TODO: Replace <FILL IN> with appropriate code
# Represent matrices as lists within lists. For example, [[1,2,3], [4,5,6]] represents a matrix with
# two rows and three columns. Use integer values.
X = [[22,28],[49,64]]
Y = [[1,2,3],[2,4,6],[3,6,9]]
```

In [88]:

```
# TEST Matrix multiplication (1d)
Test.assertEqualsHashed(X, 'c2ada2598d8a499e5dfb66f27a24f444483cba13',
'incorrect value for matrix X')
Test.assertEqualsHashed(Y, 'f985daf651531b7d776523836f3068d4c12e4519',
'incorrect value for matrix Y')
```

`ndarray`

consisting of the elements [1, 2, 3] and multiply this array by 5. Use np.array() to create the array. Note that you can pass a Python list into `np.array()`

. To perform scalar multiplication with an `ndarray`

just use `*`

.¶In [89]:

```
# It is convention to import NumPy with the alias np
import numpy as np
```

In [90]:

```
# TODO: Replace <FILL IN> with appropriate code
# Create a numpy array with the values 1, 2, 3
simpleArray = np.array([1,2,3])
# Perform the scalar product of 5 and the numpy array
timesFive = 5*simpleArray
print simpleArray
print timesFive
```

In [91]:

```
# TEST Scalar multiplication (2a)
Test.assertTrue(np.all(timesFive == [5, 10, 15]), 'incorrect value for timesFive')
```

`*`

operator to multiply two `ndarray`

objects of the same length.¶`x`

and `y`

, you could compute their dot product four ways: `np.dot(x, y)`

, `np.dot(y, x)`

, `x.dot(y)`

, or `y.dot(x)`

.¶`u`

and `v`

element-wise and compute their dot product.¶In [92]:

```
# TODO: Replace <FILL IN> with appropriate code
# Create a ndarray based on a range and step size.
u = np.arange(0, 5, .5)
v = np.arange(5, 10, .5)
elementWise = u*v
dotProduct = np.dot(u,v)
print 'u: {0}'.format(u)
print 'v: {0}'.format(v)
print '\nelementWise\n{0}'.format(elementWise)
print '\ndotProduct\n{0}'.format(dotProduct)
```

In [93]:

```
# TEST Element-wise multiplication and dot product (2b)
Test.assertTrue(np.all(elementWise == [ 0., 2.75, 6., 9.75, 14., 18.75, 24., 29.75, 36., 42.75]),
'incorrect value for elementWise')
Test.assertEquals(dotProduct, 183.75, 'incorrect value for dotProduct')
```

`ndarray`

or a list of lists to the function. You can perform matrix math on NumPy matrices using `*`

.¶`.T`

on the matrix object (e.g. `myMatrix.T`

). Transposing a matrix produces a matrix where the new rows are the columns from the old matrix. For example: $$ \begin{bmatrix} 1 & 2 & 3 \\\ 4 & 5 & 6 \end{bmatrix}^\mathbf{\top} = \begin{bmatrix} 1 & 4 \\\ 2 & 5 \\\ 3 & 6 \end{bmatrix} $$In [94]:

```
# TODO: Replace <FILL IN> with appropriate code
from numpy.linalg import inv
A = np.matrix([[1,2,3,4],[5,6,7,8]])
print 'A:\n{0}'.format(A)
# Print A transpose
print '\nA transpose:\n{0}'.format(A.T)
# Multiply A by A transpose
AAt = A*(A.T)
print '\nAAt:\n{0}'.format(AAt)
# Invert AAt with np.linalg.inv()
AAtInv = inv(AAt)
print '\nAAtInv:\n{0}'.format(AAtInv)
# Show inverse times matrix equals identity
# We round due to numerical precision
print '\nAAtInv * AAt:\n{0}'.format((AAtInv * AAt).round(4))
```

In [95]:

```
# TEST Matrix math (2c)
Test.assertTrue(np.all(AAt == np.matrix([[30, 70], [70, 174]])), 'incorrect value for AAt')
Test.assertTrue(np.allclose(AAtInv, np.matrix([[0.54375, -0.21875], [-0.21875, 0.09375]])),
'incorrect value for AAtInv')
```

`ndarray`

's elements by using slices. These slices operate the same way as slices for Python lists. For example, `[0, 1, 2, 3][:2]`

returns the first two elements `[0, 1]`

. NumPy, additionally, has more sophisticated slicing that allows slicing across multiple dimensions; however, you'll only need to use basic slices in future labs for this course.¶`:`

, it is equivalent to starting at 0, and hence `[0, 1, 2, 3][:2]`

and `[0, 1, 2, 3][0:2]`

yield the same result. Similarly, if no index is placed to the right of a `:`

, it is equivalent to slicing to the end of the object. Also, you can use negative indices to index relative to the end of the object, so `[-2:]`

would return the last two elements of the object.¶`features`

.¶In [96]:

```
# TODO: Replace <FILL IN> with appropriate code
features = np.array([1, 2, 3, 4])
print 'features:\n{0}'.format(features)
# The last three elements of features
lastThree = features[-3:]
print '\nlastThree:\n{0}'.format(lastThree)
```

In [97]:

```
# TEST Slices (3a)
Test.assertTrue(np.all(lastThree == [2, 3, 4]), 'incorrect value for lastThree')
```

`ndarray`

objects `np.hstack()`

and `np.vstack()`

take in a tuple of arrays as their first argument. To horizontally combine three arrays `a`

, `b`

, and `c`

, you would run `np.hstack((a, b, c))`

.¶`a = [1, 2, 3, 4]`

and `b = [5, 6, 7, 8]`

, we could use `np.vstack((a, b))`

to produce the two-dimensional array: $$ \begin{bmatrix} 1 & 2 & 3 & 4 \\\ 5 & 6 & 7 & 8 \end{bmatrix} $$`zeros`

and `ones`

arrays both horizontally (column-wise) and vertically (row-wise).¶`ndarray`

. If you need the result to be a matrix, you can call `np.matrix()`

on the result, which will return a NumPy matrix.¶In [98]:

```
# TODO: Replace <FILL IN> with appropriate code
zeros = np.zeros(8)
ones = np.ones(8)
print 'zeros:\n{0}'.format(zeros)
print '\nones:\n{0}'.format(ones)
zerosThenOnes = np.hstack((zeros,ones)) # A 1 by 16 array
zerosAboveOnes = np.vstack((zeros,ones)) # A 2 by 8 array
print '\nzerosThenOnes:\n{0}'.format(zerosThenOnes)
print '\nzerosAboveOnes:\n{0}'.format(zerosAboveOnes)
```

In [99]:

```
# TEST Combining ndarray objects (3b)
Test.assertTrue(np.all(zerosThenOnes == [0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1]),
'incorrect value for zerosThenOnes')
Test.assertTrue(np.all(zerosAboveOnes == [[0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0],[1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1]]),
'incorrect value for zerosAboveOnes')
```

`DenseVector`

is used to store arrays of values for use in PySpark. `DenseVector`

actually stores values in a NumPy array and delegates calculations to that object. You can create a new `DenseVector`

using `DenseVector()`

and passing in an NumPy array or a Python list.¶`DenseVector`

implements several functions. The only function needed for this course is `DenseVector.dot()`

, which operates just like `np.ndarray.dot()`

.¶`DenseVector`

stores all values as `np.float64`

, so even if you pass in an NumPy array of integers, the resulting `DenseVector`

will contain floating-point numbers. Also, `DenseVector`

objects exist locally and are not inherently distributed. `DenseVector`

objects can be used in the distributed setting by either passing functions that contain them to resilient distributed dataset (RDD) transformations or by distributing them directly as RDDs. You'll learn more about RDDs in the spark tutorial.¶`DenseVector`

consisting of the values `[3.0, 4.0, 5.0]`

and compute the dot product of this vector with `numpyVector`

.¶In [100]:

```
from pyspark.mllib.linalg import DenseVector
```

In [101]:

```
# TODO: Replace <FILL IN> with appropriate code
numpyVector = np.array([-3, -4, 5])
print '\nnumpyVector:\n{0}'.format(numpyVector)
# Create a DenseVector consisting of the values [3.0, 4.0, 5.0]
myDenseVector = DenseVector(np.array([3.0, 4.0, 5.0]))
# Calculate the dot product between the two vectors.
denseDotProduct =DenseVector.dot(myDenseVector,numpyVector)
print 'myDenseVector:\n{0}'.format(myDenseVector)
print '\ndenseDotProduct:\n{0}'.format(denseDotProduct)
```

In [102]:

```
# TEST PySpark's DenseVector (3c)
Test.assertTrue(isinstance(myDenseVector, DenseVector), 'myDenseVector is not a DenseVector')
Test.assertTrue(np.allclose(myDenseVector, np.array([3., 4., 5.])),
'incorrect value for myDenseVector')
Test.assertTrue(np.allclose(denseDotProduct, 0.0), 'incorrect value for denseDotProduct')
```

`lambda`

followed by the names of the function's parameters separated by commas, followed by a `:`

, and then the expression statement that the function will evaluate. For example, `lambda x, y: x + y`

is an anonymous function that computes the sum of its two inputs.¶`addSLambda`

. From this example, we can see that `lambda`

provides a shortcut for creating a simple function. Note that the behavior of the function created using `def`

and the function created using `lambda`

is equivalent. Both functions have the same type and return the same results. The only differences are the names and the way they were created.¶`def`

with a corresponding anonymous function. Next, write your own lambda expression that creates a function that multiplies its input (a single parameter) by 10.¶In [103]:

```
# Example function
def addS(x):
return x + 's'
print type(addS)
print addS
print addS('cat')
```

In [104]:

```
# As a lambda
addSLambda = lambda x: x + 's'
print type(addSLambda)
print addSLambda
print addSLambda('cat')
```

In [105]:

```
# TODO: Replace <FILL IN> with appropriate code
# Recall that: "lambda x, y: x + y" creates a function that adds together two numbers
multiplyByTen = lambda x: x*10
print multiplyByTen(5)
# Note that the function still shows its name as <lambda>
print '\n', multiplyByTen
```

In [106]:

```
# TEST Python lambda expressions (4a)
Test.assertEquals(multiplyByTen(10), 100, 'incorrect definition for multiplyByTen')
```

`lambda`

fewer steps than `def`

`lambda`

generates a function and returns it, while `def`

generates a function and assigns it to a name. The function returned by `lambda`

also automatically returns the value of its expression statement, which reduces the amount of code that needs to be written.¶`def`

behavior using `lambda`

. Note that since a lambda expression returns a function, it can be used anywhere an object is expected. For example, you can create a list of functions where each function in the list was generated by a lambda expression.¶In [107]:

```
# Code using def that we will recreate with lambdas
def plus(x, y):
return x + y
def minus(x, y):
return x - y
functions = [plus, minus]
print functions[0](4, 5)
print functions[1](4, 5)
```

In [108]:

```
# TODO: Replace <FILL IN> with appropriate code
# The first function should add two values, while the second function should subtract the second
# value from the first value.
lambdaFunctions = [lambda x,y:x+y, lambda x,y:x-y]
print lambdaFunctions[0](4, 5)
print lambdaFunctions[1](4, 5)
```

In [109]:

```
# TEST lambda fewer steps than def (4b)
Test.assertEquals(lambdaFunctions[0](10, 10), 20, 'incorrect first lambdaFunction')
Test.assertEquals(lambdaFunctions[1](10, 10), 0, 'incorrect second lambdaFunction')
```

`lambda`

allows for multiple ways to define the same function. For example, we might want to create a function that takes in a single parameter, where the parameter is a tuple consisting of two values, and the function adds the two values together. The syntax could be either: `lambda x: x[0] + x[1]`

or `lambda (x0, x1): x0 + x1`

. If we called either function on the tuple `(3, 4)`

it would return `7`

. Note that the second `lambda`

relies on the tuple `(3, 4)`

being unpacked automatically, which means that `x0`

is assigned the value `3`

and `x1`

is assigned the value `4`

.¶`lambda x, y: (x[0] + y[0], x[1] + y[1])`

and `lambda (x0, x1), (y0, y1): (x0 + y0, x1 + y1)`

. The result of applying either of these functions to tuples `(1, 2)`

and `(3, 4)`

would be the tuple `(4, 6)`

.¶`swap1`

and `swap2`

that swap the order of a tuple; a one-parameter function `swapOrder`

that takes in a tuple with three values and changes the order to: second element, third element, first element; and finally, a three-parameter function `sumThree`

that takes in three tuples, each with two values, and returns a tuple containing two values: the sum of the first element of each tuple and the sum of second element of each tuple.¶In [110]:

```
# Examples. Note that the spacing has been modified to distinguish parameters from tuples.
# One-parameter function
a1 = lambda x: x[0] + x[1]
a2 = lambda (x0, x1): x0 + x1
print 'a1( (3,4) ) = {0}'.format( a1( (3,4) ) )
print 'a2( (3,4) ) = {0}'.format( a2( (3,4) ) )
# Two-parameter function
b1 = lambda x, y: (x[0] + y[0], x[1] + y[1])
b2 = lambda (x0, x1), (y0, y1): (x0 + y0, x1 + y1)
print '\nb1( (1,2), (3,4) ) = {0}'.format( b1( (1,2), (3,4) ) )
print 'b2( (1,2), (3,4) ) = {0}'.format( b2( (1,2), (3,4) ) )
```

In [111]:

```
# TODO: Replace <FILL IN> with appropriate code
# Use both syntaxes to create a function that takes in a tuple of two values and swaps their order
# E.g. (1, 2) => (2, 1)
swap1 = lambda x: (x[1],x[0])
swap2 = lambda (x0, x1): (x1,x0)
print 'swap1((1, 2)) = {0}'.format(swap1((1, 2)))
print 'swap2((1, 2)) = {0}'.format(swap2((1, 2)))
# Using either syntax, create a function that takes in a tuple with three values and returns a tuple
# of (2nd value, 3rd value, 1st value). E.g. (1, 2, 3) => (2, 3, 1)
swapOrder = lambda x: (x[1],x[2],x[0])
print 'swapOrder((1, 2, 3)) = {0}'.format(swapOrder((1, 2, 3)))
# Using either syntax, create a function that takes in three tuples each with two values. The
# function should return a tuple with the values in the first position summed and the values in the
# second position summed. E.g. (1, 2), (3, 4), (5, 6) => (1 + 3 + 5, 2 + 4 + 6) => (9, 12)
sumThree = lambda x,y,z:(x[0]+y[0]+z[0],x[1]+y[1]+z[1])
print 'sumThree((1, 2), (3, 4), (5, 6)) = {0}'.format(sumThree((1, 2), (3, 4), (5, 6)))
```

In [112]:

```
# TEST Lambda expression arguments (4c)
Test.assertEquals(swap1((1, 2)), (2, 1), 'incorrect definition for swap1')
Test.assertEquals(swap2((1, 2)), (2, 1), 'incorrect definition for swap2')
Test.assertEquals(swapOrder((1, 2, 3)), (2, 3, 1), 'incorrect definition fo swapOrder')
Test.assertEquals(sumThree((1, 2), (3, 4), (5, 6)), (9, 12), 'incorrect definition for sumThree')
```

`def`

in place of `lambda`

.¶`return`

statement in a `lambda`

would raise a `SyntaxError`

.¶`assert`

, `pass`

, `del`

, `print`

, `return`

, `yield`

, `raise`

, `break`

, `continue`

, `import`

, `global`

, and `exec`

. Also, note that assignment statements (`=`

) and augmented assignment statements (e.g. `+=`

) cannot be used either.¶In [113]:

```
# Just run this code
# This code will fail with a syntax error, as we can't use print in a lambda expression
import traceback
try:
exec "lambda x: print x"
except:
traceback.print_exc()
```

`lambda`

examples we have shown so far have been somewhat contrived. This is because they were created to demonstrate the differences and similarities between `lambda`

and `def`

. An excellent use case for lambda expressions is functional programming. In functional programming, you will often pass functions to other functions as parameters, and `lambda`

can be used to reduce the amount of code necessary and to make the code more readable.¶`True`

or `False`

and only elements that evaluate to `True`

are retained. Finally, reduce operates on pairs of elements in a series. It applies a function that takes in two values and returns a single value. Using this function, reduce is able to, iteratively, "reduce" a series to a single value.¶`lambda`

functions, one each for use in map, filter, and reduce. The map `lambda`

will multiply its input by 5, the filter `lambda`

will evaluate to `True`

for even numbers, and the reduce `lambda`

will add two numbers. Note that we have created a class called `FunctionalWrapper`

so that the syntax for this exercise matches the syntax you'll see in PySpark.¶`True`

or `False`

, and reduce requires a two parameter function that combines the two parameters and returns a new value.¶In [114]:

```
# Create a class to give our examples the same syntax as PySpark
class FunctionalWrapper(object):
def __init__(self, data):
self.data = data
def map(self, function):
"""Call `map` on the items in `data` using the provided `function`"""
return FunctionalWrapper(map(function, self.data))
def reduce(self, function):
"""Call `reduce` on the items in `data` using the provided `function`"""
return reduce(function, self.data)
def filter(self, function):
"""Call `filter` on the items in `data` using the provided `function`"""
return FunctionalWrapper(filter(function, self.data))
def __eq__(self, other):
return (isinstance(other, self.__class__)
and self.__dict__ == other.__dict__)
def __getattr__(self, name): return getattr(self.data, name)
def __getitem__(self, k): return self.data.__getitem__(k)
def __repr__(self): return 'FunctionalWrapper({0})'.format(repr(self.data))
def __str__(self): return 'FunctionalWrapper({0})'.format(str(self.data))
```

In [115]:

```
# Map example
# Create some data
mapData = FunctionalWrapper(range(5))
# Define a function to be applied to each element
f = lambda x: x + 3
# Imperative programming: loop through and create a new object by applying f
mapResult = FunctionalWrapper([]) # Initialize the result
for element in mapData:
mapResult.append(f(element)) # Apply f and save the new value
print 'Result from for loop: {0}'.format(mapResult)
# Functional programming: use map rather than a for loop
print 'Result from map call: {0}'.format(mapData.map(f))
# Note that the results are the same but that the map function abstracts away the implementation
# and requires less code
```

In [116]:

```
# TODO: Replace <FILL IN> with appropriate code
dataset = FunctionalWrapper(range(10))
# Multiply each element by 5
mapResult = dataset.map(lambda x:x*5)
# Keep the even elements
# Note that "x % 2" evaluates to the remainder of x divided by 2
filterResult = dataset.filter(lambda x:x%2==0)
# Sum the elements
reduceResult = dataset.reduce(lambda x,y: x+y)
print 'mapResult: {0}'.format(mapResult)
print '\nfilterResult: {0}'.format(filterResult)
print '\nreduceResult: {0}'.format(reduceResult)
```

In [117]:

```
# TEST Functional programming (4e)
Test.assertEquals(mapResult, FunctionalWrapper([0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45]),
'incorrect value for mapResult')
Test.assertEquals(filterResult, FunctionalWrapper([0, 2, 4, 6, 8]),
'incorrect value for filterResult')
Test.assertEquals(reduceResult, 45, 'incorrect value for reduceResult')
```

`FunctionalWrapper`

class return `FunctionalWrapper`

objects, we can compose (or chain) together our function calls. For example, `dataset.map(f1).filter(f2).reduce(f3)`

, where `f1`

, `f2`

, and `f3`

are functions or lambda expressions, first applies a map operation to `dataset`

, then filters the result from map, and finally reduces the result from the first two operations.¶`'Split this'.lower().split(' ')`

first returns a new string object `'split this'`

and then `split(' ')`

is called on that string to produce `['split', 'this']`

.¶`dataset`

in the sequence: map, filter, reduce. Note that since we are composing the operations our result will be different than in (4e). Also, we can write our operations on separate lines to improve readability.¶In [118]:

```
# Example of a mult-line expression statement
# Note that placing parentheses around the expression allow it to exist on multiple lines without
# causing a syntax error.
(dataset
.map(lambda x: x + 2)
.reduce(lambda x, y: x * y))
```

Out[118]:

In [119]:

```
# TODO: Replace <FILL IN> with appropriate code
# Multiply the elements in dataset by five, keep just the even values, and sum those values
finalSum = dataset.map(lambda x:x*5).filter(lambda x: x%2==0).reduce(lambda x,y:x+y)
print finalSum
```

In [120]:

```
# TEST Composability (4f)
Test.assertEquals(finalSum, 100, 'incorrect value for finalSum')
```

`# TODO`

cell below. The file is 8.4 MB compressed. The script below will download the file to the virtual machine (VM) and then extract the data.¶`# TODO`

cell below.¶In [77]:

```
# Run this code to view Criteo's agreement
# Note that some ad blocker software will prevent this IFrame from loading.
# If this happens, open the webpage in a separate tab and follow the instructions from above.
from IPython.lib.display import IFrame
IFrame("http://labs.criteo.com/downloads/2014-kaggle-display-advertising-challenge-dataset/",
600, 350)
```

Out[77]:

In [78]:

```
# TODO: Replace <FILL IN> with appropriate code
# Just replace <FILL IN> with the url for dac_sample.tar.gz
import glob
import os.path
import tarfile
import urllib
import urlparse
# Paste url, url should end with: dac_sample.tar.gz
url = 'http://labs.criteo.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/dac_sample.tar.gz'
url = url.strip()
baseDir = os.path.join('data')
inputPath = os.path.join('cs190', 'dac_sample.txt')
fileName = os.path.join(baseDir, inputPath)
inputDir = os.path.split(fileName)[0]
def extractTar(check = False):
# Find the zipped archive and extract the dataset
tars = glob.glob('dac_sample*.tar.gz*')
if check and len(tars) == 0:
return False
if len(tars) > 0:
try:
tarFile = tarfile.open(tars[0])
except tarfile.ReadError:
if not check:
print 'Unable to open tar.gz file. Check your URL.'
return False
tarFile.extract('dac_sample.txt', path=inputDir)
print 'Successfully extracted: dac_sample.txt'
return True
else:
print 'You need to retry the download with the correct url.'
print ('Alternatively, you can upload the dac_sample.tar.gz file to your Jupyter root ' +
'directory')
return False
if os.path.isfile(fileName):
print 'File is already available. Nothing to do.'
elif extractTar(check = True):
print 'tar.gz file was already available.'
elif not url.endswith('dac_sample.tar.gz'):
print 'Check your download url. Are you downloading the Sample dataset?'
else:
# Download the file and store it in the same directory as this notebook
try:
urllib.urlretrieve(url, os.path.basename(urlparse.urlsplit(url).path))
except IOError:
print 'Unable to download and store: {0}'.format(url)
extractTar()
```

In [79]:

```
import os.path
baseDir = os.path.join('data')
inputPath = os.path.join('cs190', 'dac_sample.txt')
fileName = os.path.join(baseDir, inputPath)
if os.path.isfile(fileName):
rawData = (sc
.textFile(fileName, 2)
.map(lambda x: x.replace('\t', ','))) # work with either ',' or '\t' separated data
print rawData.take(1)
rawDataCount = rawData.count()
print rawDataCount
# This line tests that the correct number of observations have been loaded
assert rawDataCount == 100000, 'incorrect count for rawData'
if rawDataCount == 100000:
print 'Criteo data loaded successfully!'
```